Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data communications of various media types over copper wire. It has been more than 20 years since the first market introduction of ADSL and HDSL as broadband access technologies for business and residential applications. Yet, recently DSL has gained a renewed life in industrial, transportation, traffic, and enterprise applications due to its robust performance, low cost of equipment, and the large installed base of copper wire.
Today ADSL2+, the latest version of classic ADSL, can achieve data rates up to 25Mbps downstream, 3 Mbps upstream over a single wire pair, and reach up to more than 22,000 feet with repeaters and extenders. ADSL2+ is capable of supporting applications for high-definition television, as well as telephone services (voice over IP), general Internet access, and data communications over a single wire-pair connection.
Adding fiber on the uplink enables the deployment of fiber-DSLAMs at the network “edge”, thereby optimizing the performance of the hybrid fiber/copper network using existing fiber and copper. A smart combination of copper/fiber deployments is providing operators with a timely and cost-effective solution while leveraging the past investments in installed copper loops to the largest extent possible.
In many cases, this level of performance is more than enough for applications in unserved and underserved areas which are still running sub-1Mbps rates and in the new IOT (Internet of Things) applications where lower speed data transmission for sensor parameters gathering is just what is needed or, in fact, is more than enough.
VDSL is a DSL technology providing data transmission faster than ADSL over a single pair of copper wires. VDSL is also capable of supporting applications such as CCTV, data communications, and general Internet access over a single connection. 20Mbps performance can be achieved in the 4000 foot range over copper.
The Second-generation systems in VDSL2 can provide data rates of 80 Mbit/s, and the maximum available bit rate achieved is less than 1000 feet. Built on global ITU and IEEE standards and decades of use, equipment providers, and carriers have gone beyond the “single-pair” concept of using one wire pair to achieve high data rates over bonded lines, while specialized modes of operation have extended reach far beyond the typical distance of copper technology.
Today G.SHDSL.bis, an alternate and enhanced form of classic HDSL, can achieve symmetrical data rates of 15 Mbps per copper pair or reach far beyond 22,000 feet. A growing number of industrial applications rely on G.SHDSL.bis as a robust long-reach communications technology. Examples are CCTV cameras, vending machines, public displays, traffic control, wired/wireless backhaul, industrial communications, and sense & control (IOT) applications. Eight pairs of copper wire can achieve over 110Mpbs symmetrically at 1000 feet or 50Mbps at 1 mile.
An important standard for DSL was produced by a working group of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and became a part of the standard IEEE 802.3ah (EFM, Ethernet First Mile) in 2004. Later, this standard was included in IEEE standard 802.3, where it is named 2BASE-TL. Kouso adheres to the 2BASE-TL standard in its G.SHDSL.bis and VDSL equipment.
The traditional business broadband access application profile is evolving. Often marketed as Metro Ethernet or EFM, SHDSL based services provide a tremendous value-add to deployed copper lines. Small businesses that may be out of fiber reach – like hotels, banks, offices or shops – can get state-of- the-art 100 Mbps symmetrical rates over bonded copper.
DSL technology goes even faster with it most recent additions: G.fast and G.vector. G.fast is a digital subscriber line (DSL) protocol standard for local loops shorter than 1500 feet, with performance targets between 150 Mbits and 1 Gbits, depending on loop length. G.fast is delivering speeds over 100 megabits at nearly 1500 feet and is capable of 300Mbps at 1000 feet thereby supplanting the need for fiber optics at the network edge.
Vectoring is a transmission method that employs the coordination of line signaling for the reduction of crosstalk levels and, thereby, performance improvement. G.vector is also known as ITU-T G.993.5. Vectoring is much like the headphones people have started to use increasingly on airplanes to reduce or cancel background/engine noise when listening to music or watching a movie. Vectoring calculates the interference between all wire pairs based on the actual signals and uses this information to cancel noise and remove crosstalk. The net gain is between 25% and 100%.
Kouso offers modems and multiplexers to cover the rate and reach requirements suitable for deployment in temperature hardened outside plant applications. Kouso is committed to enabling the best and the latest in copper technologies with the ultimate benefit of enabling necessary transmission speeds and minimizing infrastructure costs and unnecessary upgrades.
IOT AND RFID
The road and highway network runs on a wide range of bandwidths, data extensions, and highway management resources. The classic traffic network, in its’ most basic form, includes street traffic controllers where lights are switched from red to yellow to green or there is a flashing yellow light for cautionary access. The intelligent network has been expanded to include not just traffic lights, but also common message signs, CCTV, ramp meters, all types of counters, bicycle detection devices, advanced data communications devices, and a host of other devices.
This network is wide ranging in the types of traffic – vehicle and pedestrian – it serves at all varying speeds and at all times. All of the moving entities can be captured as parametric data frames, which are inherently random in nature. For example, utilization periods alternate with phases of very low to very high usage.
Kouso’s technology and products provide solutions to all these problems. Technologies such as Fast Ethernet, Fast Single- and Multi-Pair Copper, Multi Gigabit Copper, IOT, and RFID are being melded into the network to create these integrated intelligent traffic network infrastructures of the future. Bandwidth congestion can be controlled with switches and routers; therefore, Kouso’s recommended models for use are the iReader-600 RFID and iSwitch-300 RFID.
WIRED AND WIRELESS BACKHAUL
Kouso enables cost effective, high bandwidth backhauling of wireless network access equipment which is convenient, reliable, scalable, cost-effective, and supports the synchronous protocols required in today’s outdoor Ethernet-based backhaul networks.
Kouso’s Ethernet-over- Copper technology enables quick siting of outdoor WiFi Access Points, Small Cellular Base Stations, and Distributed Antenna Systems in city, county, state, and private infrastructure. Our technology is designed specifically for urban areas where overlays are required to solve coverage and capacity problems which typically occur due to high-rise buildings impeding macro base station signals and the ever increasing usage of wireless devices within densely populated areas.
Copper infrastructure is everywhere and affords an easy placement of wireless access equipment exactly when and where it is needed without the delays and costs associated with installing fiber. Kouso’s copper technology provides reliability and lacks line of sight or licensing issues associated with microwave and millimeter wave links. Trenching fiber indefinitely still does not allow for optimization of the ever changing wireless landscape and wireless links that are added to the backhaul of wireless access points increase the noise floor. There is nothing more reliable than carrying mission critical wireless traffic over time proven copper backhaul devices.
The recent emergence of Public Safety and FirstNet is placing additional demands on government entities for the backhaul of Small Cell LTE Band 14 Base Stations. Kouso’s backhaul equipment fits right in the low CapEx requirements for deploying these Small Cells. In addition, infrastructure operators now have a new source of revenue generation for their copper infrastructure by being able to sell off excess backhaul bandwidth to carriers and service providers.
Kouso’s high bandwidth solutions are also convenient, reliable, scalable, and cost-effective for the backhauling of wired network distribution and access equipment such as DSLAMs when there is no fiber available. When there is fiber available, the hardened outdoor-ready DSLAMs from Kouso are available with the fiber optic uplink built right in. Kouso provides versatile solutions that resolve many different problems.
Kouso offer Extenders, modems and multiplexers to cover the rate and reach requirements suitable for deployment in temperature hardened outside plant backhaul applications. Typical models for use are the CES700; NE400; NE600-EFM- 4 and NE600-EFM- 8; SRi2000-8, SRi2000-16, SRi2000-24, SRi2000-48, and ADSL Loop Extender; and SRi9000. Kouso is committed to enabling the best and the latest in copper technologies with the ultimate benefit of enabling necessary transmission speeds and minimizing infrastructure costs and unnecessary fiber upgrades.
Kouso’S NEW 2.5-GBIT/SEC PORT SPEED ADDED TO THEIR LINE OF TES7000 SWITCHES
Kouso, Inc. has added 2.5-Gbit/sec port speed support to its line of TES7000 Hardened Ethernet Switches. These Multi-Gigabit speed ports incorporate the technology behind NBase-T and can interface to the new 802.11ac wireless access points over the already installed base of Category 5e or Category 6 cabling.
Incorporating NBase-T technology, these Multi-Gigabit speed switches are now ready to offer increased bandwidth and the ability to backhaul several wireless streams simultaneously on the same wireless access point, for example. Based on NBase-T specifications, this new technology delivers speeds of 1Gb/s and now 2.5Gb/s on existing Cat 5e/6 cabling with the new Multi-Gigabit ports; thereby, eliminating the need to upgrade the cabling infrastructure. This can result in major cost savings; it is estimated that the typical cost of pulling a new Ethernet cable can run from $200 to $1,000 per port. The TES7000 also supports 2.5Gb/s over single-mode and multi-mode fiber optic cabling.